The Abysses Exhibit

During my trip to the Abysses
exhibit I learned about and saw many creatures. Some of them looked prehistoric
while others looked like cartoons. This was a very good experience. I saw this
underwater beetle that resembled a wood louse; except it could grow up to be 40
centimeters in length. I also saw this extremely small lobster. It was very
white and was also furry. However, one of the creatures that caught my
attention the most was a species from about 6,000 feet below sea level. This
was a light fish. Of course I have heard of light fish before but I never saw
one in real life. All the fish were stuffed and the other creatures (such as
the wood lice like creature) were dead and preserved in this certain type of
liquid. The light fish had many, very long fangs that were so large that they
stuck out of his mouth. His/ her eyes were very small and beady. Did you know
that light fish use their light to attract food? The light actually lit up for
no other reason than a wire going though the back of the fish leading to its
light. This I thought was cool but I don`t think that they should of damaged
the fish since it was in perfect condition. Another stuffed fish that I saw was
the sun fish. This was very skinny and very large fish. I guess the way to
describe it comes from its name, the “sun fish”. However, unlike the sun it is
not round but looks more like a disk. This fish had a very small circular
mouth, and black eyes that are a bit smaller than a golf ball. My memory, I
recall, that this fish lived in the Caribbean. I am a bit frightened of the sea
or rather the some of the creatures in it, a few I viewed at this exhibit;
however two fish that gave me the willies (no offense to the fish) were by far
some of the most interesting. The first one was called the “Velvet bellied
shark”. This could grow up to be about a meter long and looked like something
that you would not want to run into on a pleasant scuba dive.   It had at least three rows of very small but
extremely sharp teeth that came all around this fish`s mouth. This was not
unusual because sharks, in general, have many rows of teeth and every time one
falls out a new one takes its place. The other fish that looked very
interesting was the “Bull Frog Fish”. This fish was kacky-brown and like a bull
frog had many warts on its rough skin. And like the “Velvet Bellied Shark” it
had sharp teeth. I enjoyed this trip to the exhibit and hope to return to it to
have a closer look at these marvelous creatures.

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Section 3 Assesment

1A)  Radioactive Decay: When an element breaks
down caused its energy and other particles being released.

1B)  They change because its atoms decay and form
new atoms for another substance.

1C) It is like the ticking of a
clock because at first it starts out with 100 percent. However if the number of
half-lives if one then it will have 50 percent of radioactive element
remaining. If the number of half lives is two then you will have 25 percent of
radioactive element remaining and so on.

2A)  One can measure Carbon-14 to date rocks. You
would m3asure the amount of it in there. By doing this you would be able to
tell the absolute age.

2B) It is harder to date
sedimentary rocks because you must date the intrusions next to it then find its
(the sedimentary rock) relative age.

2C) First he would find out the
age of the intrusions then he would have to find out the relative age of the
fossil. The fossil would be older than the intrusions.



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Sample Data Table


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My Lab Study

Design a lab to study groundwater erosion or glacier erosion?

Research question: If a glacier contained oil would it affect how fast or slow it melted?

Hypothesis: I hypothesize that the oil will affect how slow or fast the glacier melted. I hypothesize this because oil is thicker than water. It also collects itself into small bubbles and floats, and sticks to ice, therefore making it harder to malt since the oil, if it was on the outside, would take longer to melt, taking a longer amount of time for the water beneath it to melt.

Independent Variables: Amount of oil in glacier
Dependant Variable: Speed at which glacier melts.

Materials: 2 Glaciers, one with oil, one without.
A large amount of water

1) Put the two glaciers in separate tubs
2) Make sure environments are the same temperature
3) Weigh each of the glaciers every 2 months
4) Record results
5) Continue process for three years

How I would measure: I would measure by recording the weight of the glacier for three years. I would do this by, first putting the glacier with oil on a massive scale and then record the data. After this I would put the glacier without any oil onto the scale and
record the data. Then I would look at the water that had melted from the glacier that contained oil and record how much of the water was oil. I would continue this for three years. When the three years are up I will compare the two glaciers. If the glaciers are the same size then the oil in the glacier did not make a difference in how fast it melted. However if the glacier are not similar sizes then the oil did make a difference in the speed that the glacier melted. This is how I would measure the experiment

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How does mass movment and erosion destroy and build new land forms?

Erosion and mass movement can both wear down and build new land forms. For example landslide (which is made up mostly of rock and soil) destroys a large hill or mountain by sliding down a slope it wears down that landform but when it finally settles it creates a new one because plants grow and a new hill is created from the old one. However a slump is a different story. Slumps make one whole piece of rock fall together. This happens when the bottom contains clay and the water gets soaked up with the clays, therefore making the land “slip”. This would make a slanted landform, or not if the rock crumbled once it hit the ground. Then there are creeps. Creeps occur when there is thawing or freezing under multiple soil and rock layers, however creeps can happen even only gentle slopes. Creeps tilt objects in weird angles over many years. This can tilt land making it crumble and making a new land form in the place the place that it has settled in. The last kind of mass movement are mudflows. Unlike creeps, landslides, and slumps mudflows are 60% water. This makes a hill fill up with moisture and collapse; however when the water evaporates the soil and rock would be a suitable land form. Erosion can also wear down and build new landforms. Erosion is caused by gravity, water, wind, waves or glaciers. This can cause land forms to wear down slowly or move sediment. This can make new land forms when deposition occurs. Deposition is when the elements of erosion lay down sediment. Erosion and mass movement can, sometimes, completely destroy land forms but they can also cause the making of new ones.

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The Elements that Make Up Soil

Soil is something that the circle of life is strongly dependent upon.  But soil is made up of many different elements. First it is made up of animal and plant remains which are bodies that disintegrated into the earth. Plant`s leaves fall of and disintegrate too. Soil is also made up of plant and animal activity such as plants seeds and animals leavings. An animal leavings act as fertilizer.  One of the main elements it is made up is rock pieces. Rock pieces can be created many different ways. It can be created from plants growing on the rock. The plants release an acid that weakens the rock. Eventually the rocks would be weakened even more from weathering that creates soft spots so it is easier to break apart. There are two different kinds of weathering. There is chemical weathering that breaks apart rocks using acid rain, oxygen and carbon dioxide. And, there is mechanical weathering that breaks apart a rock using freezing, plant and animal activity, abrasion, and the earth`s gravity.  This reminds me of an island that was all rock, nothing could grow on it. In tell one day spores were carried by the wind on to the island. Spores need almost nothing to grow. They are flat and round. The spores flew on to the island and started to grow. The acid broke down the rock a little. Then the spores reproduced, again, and again. Now slowly, bit by bit that island`s rock is being broken down. Soil is also created, like I just explained from living organisms.

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Science Homework

What is weathering?     

 Weathering is when rocks breakdown into the earth`s surface. It happens mainly because of heat, and ice. There are many different types of weathering. There is mechanical weathering that involves freezing, pressure release, animals, plant growth, and abrasion. Then there is chemical weathering that involves the breaking down of rocks and mountains into smaller pieces.

What is erosion?

Erosion is when rock particles are removed. They are removed by water, ice, wind, and gravity. Abrasion is similar to erosion, for example when rocks look like stairs or onions because they have many layers it is because the wind has blew pieces of the rock away and wore it down, that is erosion.

Over millions of years, how do you think weathering and erosion change a mountain made of solid rock?

Weathering and erosion would change a large mountain in many phases. First the mountain would break into large boulders. Then each of the boulders would break into smaller and smaller rocks in tell once a large mountain was soil composed in to the ground. This happens many ways. One way possible would be a plant would start to grow on it. As it gets bigger it roots grow stronger and start to crack the rock. Slowly the rock starts to break.

What is chemical weathering?

Chemical weathering is the breaking down of rocks into soil. This happens because of oxygen, water, acid rain, carbon dioxide, and living organisms. Chemical weathering makes soft spots and holes in rocks so that it will break down faster and easier.

Compare and contrast mechanical weathering and chemical weathering?

 First these two weathering types are the same in some ways. For example they both use plants to break down rocks. They are different in many ways because Mechanical weathering uses animals, freezing, pressure release, and abrasion. However chemical weathering uses oxygen, water, wind, and carbon dioxide to break down rocks.

 Classify each as either chemical or mechanical weather:

Freezing/thawing: Mechanical

Abrasion: Mechanical

 Oxidation: Chemical

Water dissolving chemicals into rock: Chemical 

Acid rain: Chemical

What are two factors that affect the rate of weathering?

 One of the factors is the type of rock. Some rocks weather more quickly than others for example granite weathers slowly while marble weathers quickly. This happens for many reasons. First rocks that are made of minerals that do not dissolve easily weather quickly while rocks that are made of minerals that dissolve quickly in water do not. Another reason some rocks weather quickly is that they are permeable. Permeable means that there are tiny air spaces that are connected and let the water in. This dissolves the minerals, therefore causing faster weathering. The second factor is the climate. Stone weather`s the slowest in a hot dry climate because even if the rock is permeable it will last a long time.

 A granite monument is placed outside for 200 years in a cool, dry climate. What would its rate of weathering be? Explain.

Its rate of weathering would be slow because the minerals in granite do not dissolve fast in water, and it does not rain much. Dry climates are better for stone because if the stone is permeable no water will seep through the air spaces.

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